Literacy and Numeracy

English (Foundation to Year 10) is organised into three strands that are connected to each other and support students’ understanding and use of Standard Australian English (English). Each strand connects with the other strands in creative and flexible ways, and made stronger by the threads within each sub-strand.

Together, the three strands focus on developing students’ knowledge, understanding and skills in listening, reading, viewing, speaking and writing from Foundation to Year 10. The three strands are:

  • Language: knowing about the English language
  • Literature: understanding, appreciating, responding to, analysing and creating literary texts
  • Literacy: expanding the repertoire of English usage.

Content descriptions in each of the three strands are grouped into sub-strands:


  • Language variation and change: Students learn that languages and dialects are constantly changing.
  • Language for interaction: Students learn that the language used changes depending on where they are and who they’re with.
  • Text structure and organisation: Students learn how texts are arranged for different purposes.
  • Expressing and developing ideas: Students learn how, in a text, authors control and use different ranges of language choices, structure and word knowledge.
  • Phonics and word knowledge: Students develop knowledge about the sounds of English (phonemes) and learn to identify the sounds in spoken words.


  • Literature and context: Students learn how ideas and viewpoints come from a range of sources.
  • Responding to literature: Students learn to identify personal ideas, experiences and opinions and discuss them with others.
  • Examining literature: Students learn how to explain and analyse different texts.
  • Creating literature: Students learn how to use personal knowledge and literary text to write their own.


  • Texts in context: Students learn that texts from different cultures or periods in history may reveal different patterns for narrating, informing and persuading.
  • Interacting with others: Students learn how individuals and groups use language patterns to express ideas and key concepts.
  • Interpreting, analysing, evaluating: Students learn to comprehend what they read and view by applying their knowledge.
  • Creating texts: Students apply knowledge they have developed in other strands and sub-strands to create a range of texts.

Students become literate when they apply the knowledge, skills and dispositions to interpret and use language confidently for learning and communicating in and out of school and for participating effectively in society.

Literacy is the knowledge and skills students need to:

  • access, understand, analyse and evaluate information
  • make meaning
  • express thoughts and emotions
  • present ideas and opinions
  • interact with others and participate in activities at school and in their lives beyond school.